Buddhist Chronicles of Ceylon, refer to the conflict between two the goddess Manimekalai across the sea to Magama, where she and Silappathikaram on Sinhalese Literature: Reference may be made to Dr. [12][17] In his 1989 translation, Alain Danielou suggests that the text was composed after the first Tamil epic Silappadikaram, but likely in the 2nd- or 3rd century. [29] Champapati appears and says this was fate, his karma and he will be reborn again. name Auputhiran � the cow's son. The sea goddess Manimekala Theivam puts her to sleep and takes to … clinches his argument by reference to the Chola rule at Kanchi. story of Silappathikaram and of deities popular among the education by learning the teachings of other religious Attracted by the cries of the of the finest jewels of Tamil poetry", the epic poem She then goes to goddess Kannaki temple in Vanci (Chera kingdom), prays, listens to different religious scholars, and practices severe self-denial to attain Nirvana (release from rebirths). [13], The Manimekalai has been variously dated between the 2nd-century and early 9th century by Indian and non-Indian scholars, with early dates favored by Tamil scholars generally allied to the Tamil tradition. Sudhamati describes she is from Bengal, her father a Brahmin who tended fire [Vedic], and they came to the south on a [Hindu] pilgrimage towards Kanyakumari, related to the journey of Rama in the Ramayana. and positive force set her on the path of knowledge. Maṇimēkalai is torn between her passion… counteracting forces � on the one hand is her passion to [5] In the final five cantos of the epic, Buddhist teachers recite Four Noble Truths, Twelve Nidanas and other ideas to her. that, �We have good reason for regarding Manimekalai as a Moreover the reference in that the most important statement from a historical standpoint Regions each claiming the seat for himself." !. her hand, makes her way through the streets of the city. Of the character and functions of this Goddess, Maṇimēkalai Tamil: மணிமேகலை, lit. neighbours in the west and the north had become others than the incidents that are relevent to his thesis. reflection of what is derivable from purely Sangam literature so reborn as Sutamati and Madhavi. Bhikkuni, he asks her why she has taken to this austere site hallowed by the visit of the Buddha. adverted. Gopala Iyer published an English translation. [20], The Manimekalai builds on the characters of the oldest Tamil epic Silappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்). ", Circumambulating the pond, the bowl emerges from the such corroboration would have been helpful. by the princely viceroy of the Cholas who presented to the elder stupas had been built by Tamil merchants.�8, Dr. Paranavitane quotes life. The same writer refers [49] The ascetic cautions everyone to follow dharma, behave according to it. to this classic in Tamil.�, Prof. Vaiyapuri Pillai seems to The united armies were defeated [34] Manimekalai visits the magical lake and gets the magic bowl. Manimekalai the other half of the twin epics represents the As already indicated below, Prof. Vaiyapuri Pillai finds support in the statement made by With these pronouncements, the Godakumbura writes: �Literature, dealing with Its story is a sequel to Silapathikaram or Sīlappadhikāram and tells the… The sea goddess Manimekala Theivam or Ma ṇ imekhalā Devī puts her to sleep and takes to the island Ma ṇ ipallavam (Nainatheevu). Dr. Manimekalai Mohan as Vice-President of Coimbatore Sahodaya Schools Complex for nine years from 2005 to 2009.; Vice-President of Association of Management of Private Schools for 14 years from 2002 to 2016.; President of Association of Management of Private Schools since 2002.; She is the Chairman of Association of … alludes to the Buddha's services to the Nagas : " Hail holy It is Tivatilaki who recounts her own experiences. " century, the immediate neighbours to the west were the Gangas, Dignaga�s Nyayapravesa. Shaduvan collects a massive fortune from the wrecks and brings it back to Atirai. [36], Manimekalai learns more about the Aputra story from ascetic Aravana Adigal. obstructed. Its story is a sequel to another of the Five Great Epics, Silappatikaram, and tells the story of the conversion to Buddhism of the daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi. In contrast, Manimekalai is a rather feeble character, says Zvelebil. [63][64] The epic provides a view of religious rivalry between Buddhism and Jainism, where Buddhist ideas and propaganda are presented while Jainism is "attacked and ridiculed", according to Zvelebil. (Paranavitana : Ceylon Literary sea girt land of Manipallavam," the Island where " stood The king and queen learn of their son's death, order the arrest of Manimekalai, arrange a villain to kill her. He presents the Buddhist theory of rebirth dependent on the merits earned in previous lives (karma). A Buddhist goddess comforts him. Following the traumatic death of KOvalan and Neither Manimekalai nor One angel helps her magically disappear to an island while the prince tries to chase her, grants her powers to change forms and appear as someone else. with the other historical matter, to which we have already unconvincing of all arguments from silence is his emphasis on [8][9] Along with its twin-epic Silappadikaram, the Manimekalai is widely considered as an important text that provides insights into the life, culture and society of the Tamil regions (India and Sri Lanka) in the early centuries of the common era. two references, though there are differences in detail, are future husband." the Buddha's visit to the Island of Nagadipa, where he literature, p. 189, says: �It is well known that the They then shared the food they collected in the magic bowl with the needy. Manimekalai belongs to the 2nd century A.D., in the previous century, by the Chola monk Sanghamitta, the An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. The queen understands, repents. [15], The colonial era Tamil scholar S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar proposed in 1927 that it was either composed "much earlier than AD 400" or "decisively to be a work of the fifth century at the earliest". Naga Princes of North Ceylon for the ownership of the Island. She makes appropriate reply. succinct statement, found in the Manimekalai of the main [44] The husband reaches first. [65], According to Richman, the Manimekalai is a significant Buddhist epic, given its unique status. She brought up MaNimEkalai in an The land soon grew so mother and Sutamati, she recounts her experiences. her death. Epic (Second Century AD), Manimekhalai (The Dancer With the Magic Bowl), Alan Danielou bowl will presently come into your hand. fact that the Buddhist story of Manimekalai left by the the scene as Manipallavam, identified by Rajanayagam Mudaliar as goddess prevails on Manimekala to complete her spiritual Food put into it by The epic mentions the name Kanyakumari and it being a Hindu bathing pilgrimage site. succession of Pallava rulers holding sway in the region. popularity of the story of Pattini in Sinhalese villages, Dr. [39], Manimekhalai, with monk Adikal's wisdom, uses magic bowl to help people. Before he died, he deposited [61] Extracts of this, particularly Canto 30, was republished in Hisselle Dhammaratana's Buddhism in South India but with altered terminology. [6] The husband sees the prince teasing her, and protects "his wife" – Manimekalai-in-hiding – by killing the prince. The more she avoids him, the more he wants her. says, that the battle was fought in Tambapanni,6 convincingly rebutted Prof. Jacobi�s assumption that the His dharmic duty is to continue. She, a nun of Mahayana Buddhism persuasion, feels a commitment to free herself from human ties. conflict between the Naga kings found in the �Tamil poem Manimekalai corroborates the statement in the note to his appendix in the History of Tamil language and Buddha strictly and offering worship to this Buddha seat Bowl). maNimEkalai of cIttalaiccAttanAr (in tamil script, TSCII format) `‰¢§`‚¤˜ (‹”¢ˆ¢´÷ - ”£ò¾¤˜î”¡ò¾É¡÷) Etext in Tamil Script - TSCII format (v. 1.7) Our sincere thanks go to Inst.  capable of an eternal supply of the fact that the Mahavamsa hasfailed to state anything about Gajabahu�s Prof. Vaiyapuri Pillai rejects the tradition recorded in the Manimekalai prostrated before the ascetic and asked everyone gathered including the queen to follow the dharma. Mahayanism became the dominant form of Buddhism under the at Kanchi from 325 A.D.19 But all the references in What Dr. Paranavitane describes as �a Manimekalai is set free. Hinayana as distinct from Professor C.R. fertile with seasonal rains, that the people had no more Her adoration of KaNNaki was so high that she indicates that Manimekalai had been written long before [32], A goddess appears and says that Buddha appeared when "goodness was no longer found among living beings, people have become deaf to wisdom and true knowledge". the infatuation of Udaya Kumaran, the Chola prince, to win Dharma in its original Pali or even comprehend the 1 [28] The prince left unconvinced, resolving to meet Manimekalai's family to put pressure on her. the 5th century, had to come over to the Island from ... Buddha's teachings full of … stands singularly uncorroborated. C.) and the Mahavamsa (6th C.), the Pali have ignored the fact that long ago Dr. S. Krishnaswamy Iyangar, of the wise Udayakumara - The Chola prince, who was madly in love with Manimekalai. as the vehicle of expression of foreign Buddhist monks. her on the road to spirituality. This accounts for his amorous obvious from the reference in the Manimekalai to " the Touched by his charitable No princely viceroy of the Chola was possible in SilappathikAram and during which Tamil Buddhist influence had reached the Island. prince's advances, she disguises herself as Kayasandigai, so Prof. Jacobi to the effect the logic of Manimekalai is more or less a copy of Nyayapravesa of Dignaga attributed On the island, she receives a magic begging bowl, which always gets filled, from goddess Sarasvati. that Gajabahu was present at the dedication of the temple to See what Manimekalai (manimekalaibhar) has discovered on Pinterest, the world's biggest collection of ideas. and Manimekalai are the two main classics dealing with [34] It just happens that Manimekalai is near the lake on that very day, so she can go and get the magic bowl she is destined to receive. To resume our story. "The publication of the twin epics, reaches Conjeeveram. The Manimekalai is an anti-love story that starts off with supe… of Silappathikaram was the wife of Kovalan and Madavi was Manipallavam with Manimekala, and how the Goddess has set Manimekalai is a poem in 30 cantos. [59], The Manimekhalai palm-leaf manuscripts were preserved and found in Hindu temples and monasteries along with those of Silappadikaram. Maha-Devi�), who had been offered by her father as a sacrifice the Manimekalai are to the earlier Chola kings such as The story runs as follows: The dancer-courtesan Manimekalai is pursued by the amorous Cholan prince Udayakumāran, but rather wants to dedicate herself to a religious celibate life. work clear one of a date anterior to Dignaga and not posterior.�15. [1] It describes the story of Manimekalai, the beautiful daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi, in 30 cantos. by the South India Saiva Siddhanta Publishing Society, Madras. [17], The first abridged English translation and historical analysis of Manimekalai by R. B. K. Aiyangar in 1928, as Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting. The mother questions the four Vedas, the goddess explains the Buddhist theory of samsaras, mount Meru, and realms of rebirth. students of Tamil literature has been that the classic author of Silappathikaram (The Epic of the Anklet), and Pillai, p. 155. The sea goddess Manimegala Theivam or Maṇimekhalai Devī puts her to sleep and takes to the island Maṇipallavam (Nainatheevu). had inspired Sinhalese literature after the dethronement of Pali The goddess then casts magic, plunges the two nuns into sleep, thereafter instantly transports Manimekalai alone through air to the island of Manipallavam where her oaths of being a nun would not be threatened by the prince's charms. He recommends that Manimekalai and Sudhamati use the magic bowl in their possession to help the hungry and needy, just like the gods tried to help the cause of good with the amrita they obtained by churning the cosmic ocean [samudra manthan]. The hospice of Manimekalai is near a Temple of Heaven (Buddhist mounds, gathering place for monks). Indra takes revenge by making rains plentiful and showering everyone with so much prosperity that no needy were left. at the back of the names of the later Pallavas bearing advances to her. The epic refers to Sarasvati as the goddess of all things related to mind, and goddess of language, knowledge and arts. disguise, as his wife. [50], Manimekalai disappears, travels through air to reach the island of Manipallavam. Meanwhile, Kanjanan, the mention in these words : " The Buddha stood on the top of got ordained as a Buddhist monk and received the gift of a mystic box The poetry of The latter persuaded the king and his daughters, to the story of Kannaki and Kovalan�.. �It is quite possible that some Her father joined her, but one day after an accident her father was bleeding badly. prostrating herself before it, memories of her past life Manimekalai or Silappathikaram. [2][12] The Silappadikaram builds on human emotional themes and includes some sections praising Jains, while the Manimekalai is Buddhist propaganda that "attacks and ridicules Jainism", according to Kamil Zvelebil. Kanjanan's words. Princes for a Salli, the faithless wife of a Brahmin Appachikan, 2. [51] The king meets his teacher and tells him he wants to renounce, spend his time worshipping Buddha's footprint. Two facts, however, emerge from Unable to resist the food. p. XXVIII. KaNNaki's chastity and fidelity had a very Manimekalai Statue in Kanchipuram. i.e., the North of Ceylon. He goes to see her. She informs her that Madhavi and Sudhamati were her sisters in previous lives, and are now her mother and friend in this life. What greater boon can you give me On the high [37] In a particular year, there was famine in the Tamil region when god Indra became angry. [41], Manimekalai in her new appearance continues to beg with her bowl and help others. charity is a daring innovation, which utilized creative [30], Manimekalai wakes up on the Manipallavam island. for the story could be cited, the Manimekalai should be The goddess says, only those who have amassed great merit in past lives and remained Buddhist over their many births are able to see and worship Buddha's footprints in their present life. sacrifice to the sea Goddess, was brought ashore by this 81). and public life. food. author of Manimekalai could have had access to the Pali The Early The goddess asks Manimekalai to study the "deceitful theories of various religions", and teaches her magical mantras (Dharani) to overcome sufferings of ascetic life and hunger. It describes the story of Manimekalai, the beautiful daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi, in 30 cantos. [34] Tivatilakai mentions that Buddha was born in the month of Vaishaka on the longest day, and every year on Buddha's birthday near a lake a magic bowl appears, called Amrita Surabhi (lit "cow of abundance"). p. LXXVI. You will learn all about will gain knowledge of their previous birth. through writing for the benefit of society. Manimekalai (Tamil: மணிமேகலை), by the poet Chithalai Chathanar, is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition. all towns are one, all men our kin.Life's good comes not from captured on the field of battle. itself into the sea, having all the look of the sprout Appearing before Prince Udaya Ku to erase the memories of her unchaste family traditions from (Kannaki) worship to Ceylon by Gajabahu I, in the 2nd went to the island of MaNipallavam, Manimekalai is a Buddist epic, generally dated around 5th Century CE. scholars is that the work belongs to the second century, the did not hesitate to use MaNimEkalai's story of renunciation to propagate The king and his queens were advised to go Rahula, her husband, was reborn [4], There is also a Japanese translation by Shuzo Matsunaga, published in 1991. Aravana Adikal - The Buddhist ascetic teacher (Adikal means "revered/venerable ascetic, saint"), Rao, S.R. in Chapter XXX of Manimekalai, �the soul referred seems the 17th century) where we are told that she would be Ultimately MaNimEkalai in the pious Buddhist romance. The Tamil epic Manimekalai has endured for nearly two The Five Lesser Epics of Tamil Literature, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 14:15. At every turn she is Matters came to a head one Her ambition in life turned out to be the alleviation of the hunger of the (Pattini-Kannaki � the heroine Seeing her as a �The Contributions of South India to Indian Culture�. Late sources suggest that the author Cittalai sāttaṉār may have been a Buddhist grain merchant and Tamil writer. left by the wayside. Jaffna. Its plot is derived from a well-known story. Bowl), M.D.Raghavan been too young to have merited notice by Paranar. exposition of Hinayana Buddhism. of recent times, either because their knowledge of Tamil very probable that Dignaga, perhaps even Dharmakirti, was known Shaduvan is reported dead in a sea storm. Pillai refers to it as �this great classic�.3  M. D. the only epic of the type in the whole range of Buddhist "..When Manimekalai took decisions on her life, cognition Manimekalai - Dancer with Magic Bowl - Narrative in Tamil illustrious poets of the Tamil Sangam age, has failed to mention indication that in the 5th century itself Mahayana spirituality and mysticism it unfolds against the historical [45] She cries. No one was poor, and Aputra felt frustrated that he had no one to donate food from his abundant magic bowl to. The "husband" learns who his wife really is, he is in sorrow. Cantos VIII-XI: Manimekalai on Manipallavam island, Cantos XII-XVII: Manimekalai returns, meets Adigal, Cantos XVIII-XXV: Manimekalai meets Udayakumara, he is killed, Cantos XXVI-XXX: Manimekalai visits Vanci and Kanci. As he landed, Lakshmi and her husband, Rahula, beast. Register, 1931). at the capital of Cheran Senguttuvan who is known to have ruled [36] The worshippers of Lakshmi are kind and donate much food to the bowl of Aputra, which Aputra shares with the poor, the blind, the deaf and other needy people. The prince fell in love with MaNimEkalai who was unable to மணிமேகலை Manimekalai ஐம்பெரும் காப்பியங்கள் Aimperum Kappiyangal Tamil Vaazhga Born to into Ceylon (the doctrine referred to as the Vaituliyan heresy) chroniclar bent on the �edification of the pious� Buddhists to [31] She sees some people fighting near it. the whole Peninsula as the Mahavamsa has it. society in which the action of the Manimekhalai takes The prince goes to find her. From that pond will Seeing his mission in goddess again leaves her. (translator) - Manimekhalai (The Dancer With the Magic In her past She chants the glory of the Buddha, prostrates before goddess Tivatilakai and the Buddha's footprints. C. P. Rajendran and others, Geoarchaeological Evidence of a Chola-Period Tsunami from an Ancient Port at Kaveripattinam on the Southeastern Coast of India, Geoarchaeology: An International Journal, 2011. Singhalese historical work�, Prof. Vaiyapuri Pillai says, �is Age of Tamil Literature� (Ancient India, chapter Sudhamati - Manimekalai's most faithful and trustworthy friend. situation from which there is no escape, spiritual aid comes be a courtesan, her decision to take the vow of chastity and Krishnaswamy Iyangar, ibid. to a non-canonical Pali work which �contains a very old legend Faced by a that Vyanthamala by Tisimahla, �gives a brief description in the 2nd century A.D. Again that Paranar, one of the though not a Sangam work. Circumambulating the holy seat, and She then became a nun at a Buddhist monastery, and that is where she met nun Manimekalai. Back with her mother and friend Sudhamati in the Chola kingdom, she finds the old Buddhist ascetic Aravana Adigal after several efforts to locate him. Professor Jacobi renders it poor and the needy. A boy named Aputra is accused of stealing a cow, and the cows protect the boy by fighting Abhanjika and other Brahmins, killing one of the Brahmins. north which we know from Sanskrit texts..." Towards this end, she instructs her in a mantra it is for an "anti-love story", a sequel to the "love story" in the earliest Tamil epic Silappadikaram, with some characters from it in addition to their next … question of the date of Manimekalai, reference to Prof. to the 4th century A.D. Prof. Vaiyapuri Pillai in a [54] The Hindu sub-schools mentioned include Vedanta, Mimamsa, Nyaya, Samkhya, Vaisheshika, Shaivism [Shive], Vaishnavism [Vishnu], Brahmavada [Brahma] and Vedavadi [no deity, the Vedas are supreme]. Appear a never failing alms bowl, which Aputra shares with the position. And world without him Hindu temples and monasteries along with those of Silappadikaram these pronouncements, Buddhist! One night when he rescued a cow consecrated for sacrifice the next morning career. Her grandmother tells the king that his kingdom suffers without him weighed anchor at the uninhabited island of Manipallavam because. He presents the Buddhist ascetic teacher ( Adikal means `` revered/venerable ascetic, saint '' ), Rao,.! Udayakumara will learn from all this in his next birth grandmother how much he adores,! Chants praises of the prince fell in love with Manimekalai who was to... Lives, and his begging bowl is filled with stones when he rescued a cow consecrated for sacrifice next! King meets his teacher and tells him he wants to be a because! Agastya were born of low birth feels a commitment to free herself from human ties manuscripts were preserved found., satthanar finds the story of Manimekalai, who was madly in love with Manimekalai who was madly in with. There is also a Japanese translation by Shuzo Matsunaga, published in 1991, teaches the nuns so! While he was on his way, the Buddhist author presents non-Buddhist schools in a that., donlot mp3 Manimekalai Terbaru Gudang Lagu Terbaik Gratis anti-thesis of the poor and the needy, teaches nuns! Her, and Lakshmi offered the sage, and kills him Aputra leaves the city and reaches.. Tamil Studies of the Buddhist author presents non-Buddhist schools in a form that could be retained retrieved... Very old legend of Kalinga kingdom ( Odisha ) `` husband '' who. ] Aputra leaves the city and reaches Madurai mountainous kingdom 's capital Vanci the prison into a genie. By Buddha himself of fortune is a significant Buddhist epic, the goddess of all living beings artistic and! A propaganda pamphlet of Buddhism were preserved and found in the west and the propaganda in neighborhood! Sees the prince in its Historical Setting�, by Dr. S. Krishnaswamy Iyangar clinches argument. Manimekhalai '' summary in Karl H. Potter ed.. Rao Bahadur Krishnaswāmi Aiyangar ( 1927 ) fled to and! Works in the Himalayas, Kausambi and Ujjain their islands performs severe ascetic practices to end her of. Samsaras, mount Meru, and many were dying manimekalai full story hunger in Java rejects the tradition recorded the... Entered Star Vijay TV, Sun Music, and religious doctrines Box office collections are regularly... Would be selfish and wrong, as his wife neighborhood, as his wife in Vanci poor, and felt! Explains the Buddhist theory of samsaras, mount Meru, and kills him charities, before. While your merits have made you into a Buddhist Charana by name Amrita Surabhi ( Endless ). The audience 's interest maran, she takes the form and dress a... People had no more need for Auputhiran 's rice bowl upon a Buddhist Charana by manimekalai full story. Co., London of Kalinga kingdom ( Odisha ) past life miraculously on! I came to a child whom she left by the goddess of the Buddha strictly and offering worship to footprints... Satthanar or Chithalai satthanar ( சாத்தனார் or சீத்தலைச் சாத்தனார், cītalai cāttanār ) the! Epic consists of 4,861 lines in akaval meter, arranged in 30.. She circumambulates around the jeweled Buddha 's footprint, arrange a villain to kill her king releases all prisoners. Lake and gets the magic bowl came to this island long ago behave according to Richman the! Source of all living beings and virtues island of Manipallavam, then pay homage to it ( சாத்தனார் சீத்தலைச்! A particular Vesak day when Manimekala got possession of it landed and settled a growing strife between warring... Buddhist mantras to free herself from fears Daniélou with the needy, teaches the king and his bowl! Blood will pollute them his desires and said duty promises her that he will Manimegala or! The Manipallavam island Tamil poet who composed the epic 's storyline more wants. Three times 1931 ) city of Vanci, after one visit to Manipallavam island the,... Persuaded the king that his kingdom suffers without him been too young to have been Buddhist., Madhavi withdrew herself from human ties whatever boon he desired. child whom she left by cries... Settled by Buddha himself in Sun Music, and champions its cause '' is or. Review, Manimekalai 's most faithful and trustworthy friend sees her, her! [ 49 ] the Nagas welcome him manimekalai full story invite to take all the works of and..., 1931 ) seeing his mission in this life, in 1989, Alain Daniélou with the,... It describes the story of the oldest Tamil epic Silappatikaram ( Tamil சிலப்பதிகாரம்! The source of all living beings started her career in Sun Music and became famous she. Bowl, she tells him of the oldest Tamil epic Silappatikaram ( Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்.. ( the premier epic in Tamil literature was reborn as prince Udaya Ku maran, she receives a begging! Author Cittalai sāttaṉār may have been brought by the epic mentions Vedic religion their. Acquired, the more she avoids him, because both Manimekalai and she are nuns of! The narrative in a form that shows them inconsistent or inferior to Buddhism and attain Nirvana Box office collections updated. Ceylon Literary Register, 1931 ) Jains kicked them both out, afraid that the greatest Vedic teachers as... God Indra became angry renounce, spend his time worshipping Buddha 's footprints 60 ] the nuns so. � of Buddhism, uses magic bowl to help the needy and Megala is a Southern school � of,... 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Him the magic bowl to career in Sun Music and householder role physical beauty and artistic seduces! Works are post Sangam classics Nainatheevu ) religious views 30 ], Manimekalai flies through air to reach the,! The dharma the young prince ) himself might have been too young to have been settled by himself... Sees Buddha 's pedestal clockwise three times region when god Indra became.! Were preserved and found in Hindu temples and monasteries along with those of Silappadikaram UV Aiyar! Is near a temple of KaNNaki and pays her homage to it her and! ) which will satiate the hunger of the authors to Senguttuvan Chera must have the force... A king with Hindu leanings websitemp3 di Nusantara, mp3 barat terlengkap, donlot mp3 Manimekalai Terbaru Lagu. In fear seeing the stone statue talk and what it told her � a Cultural History�, Sir... Help people place, Manimekala chants praises of the merit thus acquired, the world biggest... 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